Hysteresis in Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Relation to the Electrochemical Properties of the Semiconductor

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


The ability to bridge ionic and electronic transport coupled with large volumetric capacitance renders organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) ideal candidates for bioelectronic applications. Adopting ionic-liquid-based solid electrolytes extends their applicability and facilitates large-area printable productions. However, OETCs employing solid electrolytes tend to show a pronounced hysteresis in the transfer curve. A detailed understanding of the hysteresis is crucial for their accurate characterizations and reliable applications. Here, we demonstrated fully photopatternable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:Tos)- based OECTs incorporating the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4] in a solid electrolyte (SE). The PEDOT:Tos films deposited through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) were annealed for different durations after the polymerization step. Upon rinsing with ethanol and the deposition of the SE, the OECTs made of these films showed impressive bias stress stability under prolonged operation cycles, a high switching ratio, a low threshold voltage, and a high transconductance. Furthermore, by taking transfer measurements with different sweep rates, we revealed two distinct regimes of hysteresis: kinetic hysteresis and non-kinetic hysteresis. We observed pronounced changes in these regimes after annealing. Finally, impedance spectroscopy exhibited that the PEDOT:Tos turned from a Faradaic to a non-Faradaic response through annealing, explaining the observed hysteresis changes in both regimes.


Original languageEnglish
Article number5754
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

External IDs

WOS 000987219100001
ORCID /0000-0002-9773-6676/work/142247070



  • bias stress, hysteresis, organic electrochemical transistors, organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors, vapor phase polymerization, Organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors, Organic electrochemical transistors, Vapor phase polymerization, Bias stress, Hysteresis