Galileo und GLONASS group delay variations

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Similar to the antenna phase center corrections for phase measurements, group delay variations (GDV) of satellite and receiving GNSS antennas affect code pseudorange measurements. They are frequency-dependent and vary with the direction of signal transmission and reception. We present the first GDV estimates for all five Galileo and three GLONASS frequency bands based on terrestrial observations. As compared to GPS, the orbit properties of Galileo and GLONASS simplify this approach, because a single reference station can observe each Galileo and GLONASS satellite in its entire elevation angle range during one orbit repeat period. The homogenous results of three receiver antenna models for identical satellite types and a comparison to GPS Block IIF indicate mainly receiver antenna-specific GDV. They amount to 35 and 28 cm peak-to-peak for Galileo and GLONASS frequency bands E1 and G1, respectively, depending on the receiver antenna type. We show their effect on linear combinations where the code observable is used for precise applications and validate our GDV estimations by improving the height component in single-frequency precise point positioning.


Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalGPS Solutions
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020

External IDs

Scopus 85076409967



  • Galileo, GLONASS, Galileo, GLONASS

Library keywords