Future therapeutic strategies for olfactory disorders: electrical stimulation, stem cell therapy, and transplantation of olfactory epithelium-an overview

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review



Olfactory disorders may be temporary or permanent and can have various causes. Currently, many COVID-19 patients report a reduced or complete loss of olfactory function. A wide range of treatment options have been investigated in the past, such as olfactory training, acupuncture, medical therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or surgical excision of olfactory epithelium, e.g., in severe qualitative smell disorders. The development of a bioelectric nose, e.g., in connection with direct electrical stimulation or transplantation of olfactory epithelium or stem cells, represent treatment options of the future. The basis of these developments and the state of knowledge is discussed in the following work.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Journal HNO : Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie
Early online date3 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2023

External IDs

PubMed 36734997
PubMedCentral PMC9897160
WOS 000926115300002
Mendeley c6ab97d1-9a10-348f-8e39-3051f6e57659
Scopus 85147350957
ORCID /0000-0001-7650-1731/work/146644565
ORCID /0000-0001-9713-0183/work/146645384



  • COVID-19/therapy, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/adverse effects, Electric Stimulation/adverse effects, Humans, Olfaction Disorders/therapy, Olfactory Mucosa, Smell/physiology