Fundamentals of Hydrogel-Based Valves and Chemofluidic Transistors for Lab-on-a-Chip Technology: A Tutorial Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review



Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels have an outstanding potential for miniaturized, integrated sensor, and actuator systems and especially for lab-on-chip technology, but the application is still in its infancy. One major reason may be that design and realization of hydrogel-based systems are exceptionally complex and demanding. Here, the design parameters of a key component, the hydrogel-based valve, are discussed in their entirety. Key developments in the fields of stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are highlighted and the necessary know-how in material behavior, microstructuring technologies, modeling and name five essential design guidelines as well as scaling laws for hydrogel-based components, including microfluidic one-directional valves, microelectromechanical systems valves, self-regulating, chemomechanical valves, and chemofluidic transistors, is provided.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2200417
JournalAdvanced materials technologies
Issue number3
Early online date21 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2023

External IDs

Scopus 85134597868
WOS 000828267100001
Mendeley 6bdd1943-92fe-3b55-9502-d38b7d2ced13
ORCID /0000-0002-8588-9755/work/142246725



  • chemofluidics, hydrogel transistor, hydrogel valve, microfluidic modeling, microfluidics, Hydrogel transistor, Hydrogel valve, Microfluidic modeling, Chemofluidics, Microfluidics