Fluorinated porous frameworks enable robust anode-less sodium metal batteries

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Rong Zhuang - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Xiuhai Zhang - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Changzhen Qu - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Xiaosa Xu - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Jiaying Yang - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Qian Ye - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian, CAS - Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (Author)
  • Zhe Liu - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Stefan Kaskel - , Chair of Inorganic Chemistry I (Author)
  • Fei Xu - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)
  • Hongqiang Wang - , Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian (Author)


Sodium metal batteries hold great promise for energy-dense and low-cost energy storage technology but are severely impeded by catastrophic dendrite issue. State-of-the-art strategies including sodiophilic seeding/hosting interphase design manifest great success on dendrite suppression, while neglecting unavoidable interphase-depleted Na+ before plating, which poses excessive Na use, sacrificed output voltage and ultimately reduced energy density. We here demonstrate that elaborate-designed fluorinated porous framework could simultaneously realize superior sodiophilicity yet negligible interphase-consumed Na+ for dendrite-free and durable Na batteries. As elucidated by physicochemical and theoretical characterizations, well-defined fluorinated edges on porous channels are responsible for both high affinities ensuring uniform deposition and low reactivity rendering superior Na+ utilization for plating. Accordingly, synergistic performance enhancement is achieved with stable 400 cycles and superior plateau to sloping capacity ratio in anode-free batteries. Proof-of-concept pouch cells deliver an energy density of 325 Watt-hours per kilogram and robust 300 cycles under anode-less condition, opening an avenue with great extendibility for the practical deployment of metal batteries.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbereadh8060
JournalScience advances
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sept 2023

External IDs

PubMed 37774016