Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria isolated from hospital wastewaters, rivers and aquaculture sources in Nigeria

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Untreated wastewater is a risk factor for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. However, little is known about the contribution of untreated wastewater to the burden of antibiotic resistance in the Nigerian environment. In this study, a total of 143 ceftazidime-/cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria isolated from untreated wastewater and untreated wastewater-contaminated surface and groundwater in Nigeria were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, integrons and integron gene cassettes by PCR. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 was mapped by PCR and potentially conjugative plasmids were detected among the isolates by degenerate primer MOB typing (DPMT). ESBL production was confirmed in 114 (79.7%) isolates and ESBL genes (blaSHV, blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM) were detected in 85 (74.6%) ESBL-producing isolates. blaCTX-M-15 was associated with ISEcp1 and with orf477 in 12 isolates and with ISEcp1, IS26 and orf477 in six others. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of blaCTX-M-15 in hand-dug wells and borehole serving as sources of drinking water and a first report of the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 in environmental bacteria from Nigeria. The results of this study confirm untreated wastewater as an important medium for the spread of ESBL-producing bacteria within the Nigerian environment. Hence, the widespread practice of discharging untreated wastewater into the aquatic ecosystem in Nigeria is a serious risk to public health.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2744-2755
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

External IDs

PubMed 29139076


Sustainable Development Goals


  • Antibiotic resistance, bla, Conjugative relaxase, Untreated wastewater, β-Lactamases