Exploring the hidden impact of the Covid-19 pandemic: The role of urbanization.

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We examine the role of residential environments (urban/rural) in understanding the impact of the COVID-19
pandemic and the restrictions in nationwide movement on several socio-economic attitudes. We conducted
large-scale surveys in four European countries (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom) before and
after nationwide lockdowns were implemented. We investigate how the pandemic affected: (i) economic (eco-
nomic insecurity), (ii) political (trust in domestic and international institutions), and (iii) social attitudes
(loneliness), by controlling for the degree of urbanization, obtained from the geocodes of the survey respondents.
Our results show that taking the degree of urbanization into account is not only relevant but is also essential.
Compared to urban areas, in rural areas lockdowns led to a greater increase of economic insecurity and to a
greater decrease in trust in domestic institutions. We also show that these results are particularly valid for women
and households with children.


Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalEconomics & Human Biology
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - 2022

External IDs

Scopus 85126620664
ORCID /0000-0002-5071-7849/work/142250540