Entrainment of Mutually Synchronized Spatially Distributed 24 GHz Oscillators

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Synchronization is one of the most challenging aspects of distributed systems in terms of their scalability. Minimal uncertainties can lead to problems or failures regarding data consistency in globally operating data centers or in distributed sensor arrays. Existing approaches to address these challenges are based on hierarchical synchronization concepts which are well understood and have reached technical maturity, but have the disadvantage of having a single point of failure. However, especially for critical infrastructure or backup more resilient solutions are required. Mutual synchronization where oscillators in a network are coupled bidirectionally without a reference have been considered. Due to the flat hierarchy such systems do not have a single point of failure. This work studies how hierarchical synchronization can be combined with architectures implementing mutual synchronization. A network of three mutually coupled 24 GHz oscillators is used to study how injecting a reference signal into one oscillator affects the dynamics. This can be quantified by analyzing in which range of frequencies the network of mutually coupled oscillators can follow the reference frequency. Measurements on a ring and chain network topology forced by an external reference oscillator shown here are in good agreement with the predictions of a nonlinear dynamical model.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2665-2678
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems : a publication of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society. 1, Regular Papers
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

External IDs

Scopus 85153525495
WOS 000973254500001
dblp journals/tcasI/HoyerWPWJE23
ORCID /0000-0001-6778-7846/work/142240161


Research priority areas of TU Dresden


  • Clocks, communication systems, Delay effects, Delays, frequency measurement, frequency synchronization, Frequency synchronization, mutual synchronization, Network topology, oscillator, Oscillators, phase locked loops, Phase locked loops, phase noise, propagation delay, stability criteria, Synchronization, synchronization, Phase noise, Communication systems, Frequency measurement, Oscillator, Mutual synchronization, Stability criteria, Propagation delay