Do good and measure well! – Examining the validity of two positive social change measurements in South African social enterprises

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Purpose: The creation of positive social change (PSC) is considered the primary success criterion when evaluating social enterprise performance. However, despite a proliferation of PSC-measurements, their empirical validity and applicability in emerging economies remain largely unclear. The quantitative study examines the validity of the PSC-measurement approaches proposed by Bloom and Smith (2010; Bloom and Smith approach [BSA]) and Weaver (2020b; Weaver approach [WA]) in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: Investigating a representative sample of 347 social entrepreneurs from Gauteng and Limpopo provinces, the authors use questionnaire data to explore the factorial, convergent and discriminant validity of both PSC-measurement approaches. Statistically, this is done by applying factorial and correlation analyses. Findings: The results yield acknowledgeable differences. BSA has a high factorial and convergent validity, while its discriminant validity remains doubtful. For WA, problems concerning factorial validity occur. Research limitations/implications: Despite limited generalizability, the authors provide a first guideline for scholars regarding the empirical validity of BSA and WA outside the context of developed economies. Originality/value: The current study sheds light on the validity of two PSC-measurement approaches in an emerging economy context. This way, the authors contribute to the field by addressing the scarcity of empirical research and the restricted scope of developed economies regarding PSC-measurement.


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2023

External IDs

unpaywall 10.1108/jeee-10-2022-0325
Scopus 85159645228
WOS 000990240200001


Research priority areas of TU Dresden

DFG Classification of Subject Areas according to Review Boards

Subject groups, research areas, subject areas according to Destatis


  • Measurement, Positive social change, Social entrepreneurship, South Africa, Validity

Library keywords