Depression Severity Is Different in Dysosmic Patients Who Have Experienced Traumatic Brain Injury Compared with Those Who Have Not

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans can result in olfactory, cognitive, and affective changes. Surprisingly, research on the consequences of TBI often did not control for olfactory function in the investigated groups. Consequently, the affective or cognitive differences might be misleading as related rather to different olfactory performance than to a TBI experience. Hence, our study aimed to investigate whether TBI occurrence would lead to altered affective and cognitive functioning in two groups of dysosmic patients, one with TBI experience and one without. In total, 51 patients with TBI experience and 50 controls with varied causes of olfactory loss were thoroughly examined in terms of olfactory, cognitive, and affective performance. Student t-tests demonstrated that the only significant difference between the groups appeared in the depression severity, with TBI patients being more depressed (t = 2.3, p = 0.011, Cohen's d = -0.47). Regression analyses further showed that TBI experience was significantly associated with depression severity (R2 = 0.05, F [1, 96] = 5.5, p = 0.021, beta = 1.4). In conclusion, the present study showed that TBI experience is linked to depression, which is more pronounced compared to individuals with olfactory loss without TBI.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)638-648
Number of pages11
JournalNeurology international
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2023

External IDs

PubMedCentral PMC10204405
unpaywall 10.3390/neurolint15020040
Scopus 85163583410
WOS 001014687000001
ORCID /0000-0001-9713-0183/work/146645673
ORCID /0000-0003-1311-8000/work/158767562


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • depression, olfaction disorders, quality of life, traumatic brain injury, Traumatic brain injury, Olfaction disorders, Depression, Quality of life

Library keywords