Conditions and Effects of Feedback Viewed Through the Lens of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

Research output: Contribution to book/conference proceedings/anthology/reportChapter in book/anthology/reportContributedpeer-review



Feedback is an essential component of assessment for learning processes. Recent feedback frameworks and reviews consider the learner as an active constructor of knowledge and thus emphasize the formative function of feedback. This chapter analyzes the conditions and effects of formative feedback in (higher) education on the basis of the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF) (Narciss S, Informatives tutorielles Feedback. Entwicklungs- und Evaluations-prinzipien auf der Basis instruktionspsychologischer Erkenntnisse, Waxmann, Münster, 2006; Narciss S, Feedback strategies for interactive learning tasks. In: Spector JM, Merrill MD, van Merrienboer JJG, Driscoll MP (eds) Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 3rd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 125–144, 2008; Narciss S, Digital Educ Rev 23:7–26. Retrieved from, 2013). The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multidimensional view, interactive feedback strategies in (higher) education should be designed in ways to empower students as self-regulated and productive lifelong learners. This chapter describes the ITF-model and outlines conditions affecting feedback efficiency. Furthermore, it illustrates how the components and assumptions of the ITF-model may be linked to formative feedback-design principles. Finally, implications of the ITF-model with regard to scaling up assessment for learning are discussed.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnabling Power of Assessment
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Publication series

SeriesThe Enabling Power of Assessment

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/142251701


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • External Loop, External Representation, Feedback Message, Feedback Strategy, Task Requirement