Composites consisting of calcium phosphate cements and mesoporous bioactive glasses as a 3D plottable drug delivery system

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) are two well studied biomaterial groups widely under investigation on their applicability to treat bone defects in orthopaedics and maxillofacial surgery. Recently the extrusion properties of CPC-MBG composites using a pasty CPC based on a hydrophobic carrier-liquid were studied in our group demonstrating that such composites are suitable for low temperature 3D plotting. Based on this work, we show in this study that by variation of the MBG content in the composite the degradation of the final scaffolds can be influenced. Furthermore, by modifying the cement phase and/or the MBG with therapeutically active ions like strontium, the released ion concentration can be varied over a wide range. In a second step the MBG was functionalized exploiting the high specific surface area of the glass as a carrier system for proteins like lysozyme or grow factors. We developed a protocol that allows the incorporation of protein-laden MBG in CPC pastes without impairing the extrudability of the CPC-MBG composites. Additionally, we found that released proteins from pure MBG or 3D plotted composite-scaffolds maintained their biological activity. Therefore, the combination of CPC and MBG allows the creation of a highly flexible composite system making it a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. Statement of Significance: Calcium phosphate cements and mesoporous bioactive glasses are two promising degradable biomaterials for the regenerative treatment of bone defects. The combination of both materials to a 3D printable composite enables the creation of implants with patient specific geometry. By varying the composition of the composite, the degradation behaviour can be influenced and especially the release of therapeutically active ions is tailorable over a wide range. We demonstrated this for strontium, as it has been shown to stimulate bone formation. Moreover, the bioactive glass can be used as a carrier system for drugs or growth factors and we show the successful combination of such functionalised glass particles and a cement paste without affecting the printability.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-157
Number of pages12
JournalActa biomaterialia
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

External IDs

Scopus 85123720726
Mendeley afce8e9a-4580-3b66-adb6-742c667b2cab



  • 3D plotting, Additive manufacturing, Calcium phosphate cement, Drug delivery, Mesoporous bioactive glass