Carbon-based biosensors from graphene family to carbon dots: A viewpoint in cancer detection

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review


  • Mohammad Safari - , Islamic Azad University (Author)
  • Armaghan Moghaddam - , Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (Author)
  • Abolfazl Salehi Moghaddam - , Lehigh University (Author)
  • Moloud Absalan - , Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Author)
  • Benjamin Kruppke - , Chair of Biomaterials (Author)
  • Holger Ruckdäschel - , University of Bayreuth (Author)
  • Hossein Ali Khonakdar - , Chair of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (Author)


According to the latest report by International Agency for Research on Cancer, 19.3 million new cancer cases and 10 million cancer deaths were globally reported in 2020. Early diagnosis can reduce these numbers significantly, and biosensors have appeared to be a solution to this problem as, unlike the traditional methods, they have low cost, rapid process, and do not need experts present on site for use. These devices have been incorporated to detect many cancer biomarkers and measure cancer drug delivery. To design these biosensors, a researcher must know about their different types, properties of nanomaterials, and cancer biomarkers. Among all types of biosensors, electrochemical and optical biosensors are the most sensitive and promising sensors for detecting complicated diseases like cancer. The carbon-based nanomaterial family has attracted lots of attention due to their low cost, easy preparation, biocompatibility, and significant electrochemical and optical properties. In this review, we have discussed the application of graphene and its derivatives, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon dots (CDs), and fullerene (C60), for designing different electrochemical and optical cancer-detecting biosensors. Furthermore, the application of these carbon-based biosensors for detecting seven widely studied cancer biomarkers (HER2, CEA, CA125, VEGF, PSA, Alpha-fetoprotein, and miRNA21) is reviewed. Finally, various fabricated carbon-based biosensors for detecting cancer biomarkers and anticancer drugs are comprehensively summarized as well.


Original languageEnglish
Article number124399
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

External IDs

unpaywall 10.1016/j.talanta.2023.124399
WOS 000962565700001


Sustainable Development Goals

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Anticancer drugs, Biosensors, Cancer biomarkers, Cancer diagnosis, Carbon nanomaterials