Structures and functions of eukaryotic cells with an outer permeable membrane, a cytoskeleton, functional organelles, and motility can be mimicked by giant multicompartment protocells containing various synthetic organelles. Herein, two kinds of artificial organelles with stimuli-triggered regulation ability, glucose oxidase-(GOx)-loaded pH-responsive polymersomes A (GOx-Psomes A) and urease-loaded pH-responsive polymersomes B (Urease-Psomes B), and a pH-sensor (Dextran-FITC) are encapsulated into proteinosomes via the Pickering emulsion method. Thus, a polymersomes-in-proteinosome system is constructed which is able to probe biomimetic pH homeostasis. Alternating fuels (glucose or urea) introduced from outside the protocell penetrate the membrane of proteinosomes and enter into GOx-Psomes A and Urease-Psomes B to produce chemical signals (gluconic acid or ammonia) resulting in pH-feedback loops (pH jump and pH drop). This will counteract the catalytic “switch on” or “switch off” of enzyme-loaded Psomes A and B owing to their different pH-responsive membranes. Dextran-FITC in the proteinosome allows self-monitoring of slight pH fluctuations in the lumen of protocells. Overall, this approach shows heterogeneous polymersome-in-proteinosome architectures with sophisticated features such as input-regulated pH changes mediated by negative and positive feedback in loops and cytosolic pH self-monitoring, features that are imperative for advanced protocell design.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 30 May 2023|
DFG Classification of Subject Areas according to Review Boards
Sustainable Development Goals
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Membrane, Mimicking, Protocell