Bioactive Ion-Based Switchable Supercapacitors

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Switchable supercapacitors (SCs) enable a reversible electrically-driven uptake/release of bioactive ions by polarizing porous carbon electrodes. Herein we demonstrate the first example of a bioactive ion-based switchable supercapacitor. Based on choline chloride and porous carbons we unravel the mechanism of physisorption vs. electrosorption by nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman, and impedance spectroscopy. Weak physisorption facilitates electrically-driven electrolyte depletion enabling the controllable uptake/release of electrolyte ions. A new 4-terminal device is proposed, with a main capacitor and a detective capacitor for monitoring bioactive ion adsorption in situ. Ion-concentration control in printed choline-based switchable SCs realizes switching down to 8.3 % residual capacitance. The exploration of adsorption mechanisms in printable microdevices will open an avenue of manipulating bioactive ions for the application of drug delivery, neuromodulation, or neuromorphic devices.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202212250
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number50
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2022

External IDs

PubMed 36260635


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Choline, Electrosorption, Iontronic Architecture, Porous Carbon, Switchable Supercapacitor