Auditory Stimulation Improves Gait and Posture in Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review with Between- and Within-Group Meta-Analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review



The past decade has seen an increased interest in the implementation of auditory stimulation (AStim) for managing gait and postural deficits in people with cerebral palsy. Although existing reviews report beneficial effects of AStim on the spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait, there are still numerous limitations that need to be addressed to correctly interpret these results. For instance, existing reviews have failed to characterize the effects of AStim by conducting separate between and within-group meta-analyses, these reviews have not evaluated the influence of AStim on postural outcomes, and nor have included several high-quality existing trials. In this study, we conducted between- and within-group meta-analyses to establish a state of evidence for the influence of AStim on gait and postural outcomes in people with cerebral palsy. We searched the literature according to PRISMA-P guidelines across 10 databases. Of 1414 records, 14 studies, including a total of 325 people with cerebral palsy, met the inclusion criterion. We report a significant enhancement in gait speed, stride length, cadence, and gross motor function (standing and walking) outcomes with AStim compared to conventional physiotherapy. The findings from this analysis reveal the beneficial influence of AStim on the spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait and postural stability in people with cerebral palsy. Furthermore, we discuss the futurized implementation of smart wearables that can deliver person-centred AStim rehabilitation in people with cerebral palsy.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1752
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/142251728



  • gait, music-supported therapy, paediatric rehabilitation, postural stability, rhythmic auditory cueing, sensorimotor learning