Achieving beta-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) from melt cooling: Effect of surface functionalized carbon nanotubes

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based nanocomposites with different surface-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by melt mixing in a small scale compounder. With the incorporation of commercial functionalized MWCNTs, the beta-phase in PVDF can be directly achieved from melt cooling, as verified by results of Fourier transform infrared spectrum and X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, nanocomposites with amino group functionalized MWCNTs showed the highest percentage of beta-phase (17.4%) formation in PVDF, followed by those with hydroxyl groups (11.6%) and unmodified MWCNTs (9.4%). However, the nanocomposites containing MWCNTs with carboxyl groups which were thought to be able to well interact with the dipoles on PVDF chains have the lowest amount of beta-phase, i.e. 4.7%. The analysis on the mechanism of the influence of surface functionalization of MWCNTs on the formation of beta-phase in PVDF shows that the combined effects of the dispersion of MWCNTs and the nanotube-polymer interactions account for the formation of the beta-phase in PVDF. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-619
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2014

External IDs

Scopus 84892794020
ORCID /0000-0002-4531-691X/work/148607910



  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), Beta-phase