A practical test for retronasal odor identification based on aromatized tablets

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Background: Olfactory perceptions elicited by odors originating from within the body (retronasal olfaction) play a crucial role in well-being and are often disrupted in various medical conditions. However, the assessment of retronasal olfaction in research and the clinical practice is impeded by the lack of commercially available tests and limited standardization of existing testing materials. New Method: The novel ThreeT retronasal odor identification test employs 20 flavored tablets that deliver a standardized amount of odorous stimuli. The items represent common food- and non-food-related odors. Results: The ThreeT test effectively distinguishes patients with olfactory dysfunction from healthy controls, achieving a specificity of 86% and sensitivity of 73%. Its scores remain stable for up to 3 months (r=.79). Comparison with existing method: ThreeT test exhibits a strong correlation with “Tasteless powders” measure of retronasal olfaction (r=.78) and classifies people into healthy and patient groups with similar accuracy. Test-retest stability of ThreeT is slightly higher than the stability of “Tasteless powders” (r=.79 vs r=.74). Conclusions: ThreeT is suitable for integration into scientific research and clinical practice to monitor retronasal odor identification abilities.


Original languageEnglish
Article number110135
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of neuroscience methods
Volume406 (2024)
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2024

External IDs

PubMed 38583589
ORCID /0000-0003-1311-8000/work/158767611
ORCID /0000-0001-9713-0183/work/158767906


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Olfaction, Olfactory disorders, Retronasal olfaction, ThreeT test, Olfactory Perception/physiology, Reproducibility of Results, Smell/physiology, Tablets, Humans, Middle Aged, Male, Odorants, Young Adult, Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis, Sensitivity and Specificity, Female, Adult, Aged

Library keywords