8.0-pJ/bit BPSK Transmitter With LO Phase Steering and 52-Gbps Data Rate Operating at 246 GHz

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



This work investigates a broadband binary phase shift keying (BPSK) transmitter system with a measured data rate of 52 Gb/s and 8.0-pJ/bit transmitter efficiency. The transmitter features local oscillator (LO) multiplication, 360° LO phase steering for phased array applications, a power-efficient BPSK modulator, and a very compact power amplifier (PA) connected to a differential bond wire interface. By employing a low-order modulation scheme, the baseband (BB) chain can be implemented at a very low complexity, which benefits power consumption. Proving the concept, an integrated circuit (IC) is fabricated in a 130-nm silicon-germanium (SiGe) bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (BiCMOS) technology with a ft/fmax of 350/450 GHz, covering 1.158 mm 2. At 52 Gb/s, this circuit shows the highest reported data rate using BPSK modulation. The saturated output power of 3.5 dBm, while consuming 414 mW of direct-current (dc) power, results in a radio-frequency (RF) efficiency of 0.54%, which is a 28% improvement versus the state of the art. The high achieved data rate combined with circuit modules optimized for low power consumption results in a measured transmitter efficiency of 8.0 pJ/bit, improving the state of the art of complete transmitter systems in the same frequency band by 68% and 46% compared to BPSK and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) systems, respectively.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3217-3226
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

External IDs

WOS 000935672800001
ORCID /0000-0001-6429-0105/work/142236593


Research priority areas of TU Dresden


  • Binary phase shift keying (BPSK), broadband circuits, phased arrays, ultrawideband communication, Frequency modulation, Radio transmitters, Broadband circuits, Ultrawideband communication, Binary phase shift keying, Phased arrays, Modulation, Power amplifiers, Transistors, Power generation