4D Biofabrication: 3D Cell Patterning Using Shape-Changing Films

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Vladislav Stroganov - , University of Georgia (Author)
  • Jitendra Pant - , University of Georgia (Author)
  • Georgi Stoychev - , University of Georgia (Author)
  • Andreas Janke - , Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (Author)
  • Dieter Jehnichen - , Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (Author)
  • Andreas Fery - , Chair of Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (Author)
  • Hitesh Handa - , University of Georgia (Author)
  • Leonid Ionov - , University of Georgia, University of Bayreuth (Author)


A novel approach for fabrication of 3D cellular structures using new thermosensitive shape-changing polymer films with photolithographically patterned surface—4D biofabrication is reported. The surface of shape-changing polymer films is patterned to selectively adsorb cells in specific regions. The 2D cell pattern is converted to the 3D cell structure after temperature-induced folding of the polymer films. This approach has a great potential in the field of tissue engineering and bioscaffolds fabrication.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1706248
JournalAdvanced functional materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2018



  • actuators, folding, hydrogels, thermoresponsive polymers