The interaction between perceived safety and perceived usefulness in automated parking as a result of safety distance

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



Improved safety and traffic efficiency are among the proclaimed benefits of automated driving functions. In many scenarios, traffic safety and efficiency can be somewhat contradictory, especially in the perception of a user. In order for potential users to accept the automated system, it is necessary to find the optimal system configuration. Therefore, it is important to understand how the factors underlying acceptance develop and interact. In this study, seven safety distances of an automated parking system were implemented resulting in parking manoeuvres of varying efficiency (in terms of required moves). Participants experienced each configuration twice and rated their perceived safety and perceived usefulness. The results show that maximizing safety distances results in high perceived safety, yet also a diminished perceived usefulness due to reduced efficiency. On the other hand, maximum efficiency leads to a lower perceived safety and thus, a reduced rating of perceived usefulness. Furthermore, in some participants, perceived safety increased gradually, while for others, a threshold effect could be observed. The results demonstrate that the specification of a sole system characteristic can have multiple effects. These have to be considered to maximize acceptance.


FachzeitschriftApplied Ergonomics
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Apr. 2023

Externe IDs

Scopus 85146845002
WOS 000925276600001



  • Acceptance, Automated driving, Automated parking, Driver behaviour modelling, Perceived safety, Perceived usefulness