Poly(dl-lactide) Polymer Blended with Mineral Phases for Extrusion 3D Printing—Studies on Degradation and Biocompatibility

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



A promising therapeutic option for the treatment of critical-size mandibular defects is the implantation of biodegradable, porous structures that are produced patient-specifically by using additive manufacturing techniques. In this work, degradable poly(DL-lactide) polymer (PDLLA) was blended with different mineral phases with the aim of buffering its acidic degradation products, which can cause inflammation and stimulate bone regeneration. Microparticles of CaCO3, SrCO3, tricalcium phosphates (α-TCP, β-TCP), or strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (SrHAp) were mixed with the polymer powder following processing the blends into scaffolds with the Arburg Plastic Freeforming 3D-printing method. An in vitro degradation study over 24 weeks revealed a buffer effect for all mineral phases, with the buffering capacity of CaCO3 and SrCO3 being the highest. Analysis of conductivity, swelling, microstructure, viscosity, and glass transition temperature evidenced that the mineral phases influence the degradation behavior of the scaffolds. Cytocompatibility of all polymer blends was proven in cell experiments with SaOS-2 cells. Patient-specific implants consisting of PDLLA + CaCO3, which were tested in a pilot in vivo study in a segmental mandibular defect in minipigs, exhibited strong swelling. Based on these results, an in vitro swelling prediction model was developed that simulates the conditions of anisotropic swelling after implantation.


PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Mai 2024

Externe IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-5385-9607/work/160950185
ORCID /0000-0001-9075-5121/work/160951481
ORCID /0000-0003-4397-1467/work/160951599



  • 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Arburg Plastic Freeforming, bone defect, calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite, osteoblasts, poly(DL-lactide), strontium carbonate, tricalcium phosphate