Methods for Virtual Validation of Automotive Powertrain Systems in Terms of Vehicle Drivability—A Systematic Literature Review

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikel (Review)BeigetragenBegutachtung



For the last two decades, an extensive transition in automotive X-in-the-loop activities from isolated electronic control units to real-time related, geographically distributed validation tasks has occurred. Benefits are strengthening frontloading, enabling concurrent engineering and reducing prototypes and testing efforts. As a downside, comprehensive system understanding and adequate simulation models must be provided. New technological trends like software-over-the-air-updates denote a continuous validation process even after the start of production. The present review focuses on the virtual validation of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. This exemplary field of application receives more and more attention as electrification of the vehicle powertrain accelerates, and this property directly influences the vehicle DNA. A systematic review process based on the PRISMA workflow has been conducted, focusing on drivability-related powertrain applications. The investigation reveals the following trends: First, increasing complexity of virtualisation methods and models for validation activities influenced by vehicle-to-everything and geographically distributed development. Second, missing standards for virtual validation and proof of representativeness for combined real-virtual testing. In addition, many studies only contemplate the advantages of hardware-inthe-
loop-driven development, disregarding crucial limitations and risks for such approaches. In conclusion, there is no longer the question of whether to validate virtually but how to comprehensible realise virtual validation.


Seiten (von - bis)27043-27065
FachzeitschriftIEEE access
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 14 März 2023

Externe IDs

dblp journals/access/SchmidtBP23
unpaywall 10.1109/access.2023.3257106
Scopus 85151347754
ORCID /0000-0002-0679-0766/work/141545028



  • Frontloading, X-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, vehicle longitudinal dynamics, vehicle powertrain, virtual validation