BACKGROUND: Despite the high number of synthetic androgenic-anabolic steroids, testosterone is still misused for doping in amateur and professional sports. However, only few studies investigated the dose-response effects of testosterone beyond its physiological concentrations and in over 90 years of research, no saturation dosage has been experimentally described for exogenous testosterone administration.
OBJECTIVES: We want to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological effects of supra-physiological testosterone application and close this gap in testosterone dose-response data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male orchiectomized rats were treated with different testosterone doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks. Several physiological endpoints (e.g., body weight, organ and muscle weight, muscle strength, muscle fiber size) were examined during and after the termination of the treatment with an adjusted Hershberger assay, open-field-test, and (immuno-)histologic.
RESULTS: The wet weights of androgen responsive organs (penis, prostate, seminal vesicle) showed a significant increase in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of the prostate showed a significant higher percentage of KI67 positive prostate nuclei in the highest dosage group and an increasing hyperplasia with increasing testosterone administered. A significant anabolic effect was only observed in Levator ani wet weight, and to minor degree for the cardiac muscle. Regarding other skeletal muscles (Musculus soleus and Musculus gastrognemicus), no significant testosterone effects were observed. We showed a significant increasing dosage-response effect for testosterone in androgen responsive organs with saturation at the two highest concentration of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The dose-dependent androgenic effects of testosterone were well observable and the anabolic effects on muscle tissue were visible although to a lesser degree, without the support of aerobic exercise and a protein rich diet. Future studies should investigate a combinatorial effect of testosterone and training. Nevertheless, with the chosen range of applied testosterone, we showed a saturation of testosterone effects in prostate, seminal vesicle, penis, and Levator ani.
|30 Mai 2023
|Veröffentlicht - 3 Juni 2023
Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
- Anabolic, Androgenic, Dose-response relationship, Saturation, Supra-physiological, Testosterone, anabolic, androgenic, dose–response relationship, saturation, supra-physiological, testosterone