Satellite DNA landscapes after allotetraploidization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reveal unique A and B subgenomes

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



If two related plant species hybridize, their genomes may be combined and duplicated within a single nucleus, thereby forming an allotetraploid. How the emerging plant balances two co-evolved genomes is still a matter of ongoing research. Here, we focus on satellite DNA (satDNA), the fastest turn-over sequence class in eukaryotes, aiming to trace its emergence, amplification, and loss during plant speciation and allopolyploidization. As a model, we used Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), an allopolyploid crop with 2n = 4x = 36 chromosomes. Quinoa originated by hybridization of an unknown female American Chenopodium diploid (AA genome) with an unknown male Old World diploid species (BB genome), dating back 3.3-6.3 million years. Applying short read clustering to quinoa (AABB), C. pallidicaule (AA), and C. suecicum (BB) whole genome shotgun sequences, we classified their repetitive fractions, and identified and characterized seven satDNA families, together with the 5S rDNA model repeat. We show unequal satDNA amplification (two families) and exclusive occurrence (four families) in the AA and BB diploids by read mapping as well as Southern, genomic, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Whereas the satDNA distributions support C. suecicum as possible parental species, we were able to exclude C. pallidicaule as progenitor due to unique repeat profiles. Using quinoa long reads and scaffolds, we detected only limited evidence of intergenomic homogenization of satDNA after allopolyploidization, but were able to exclude dispersal of 5S rRNA genes between subgenomes. Our results exemplify the complex route of tandem repeat evolution through Chenopodium speciation and allopolyploidization, and may provide sequence targets for the identification of quinoa's progenitors.


Seiten (von - bis)32-52
FachzeitschriftThe plant journal
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Juli 2020

Externe IDs

Scopus 85082134349



  • Chenopodium quinoa/genetics, Chromosomes, Plant/genetics, Consensus Sequence/genetics, DNA, Satellite/genetics, Genome, Plant/genetics, Hybridization, Genetic/genetics, Retroelements/genetics, Sequence Alignment, Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics, Tetraploidy