Repeat turnover meets stable chromosomes: repetitive DNA sequences mark speciation and gene pool boundaries in sugar beet and wild beets

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



Sugar beet and its wild relatives share a base chromosome number of nine and similar chromosome morphologies. Yet, interspecific breeding is impeded by chromosome and sequence divergence that is still not fully understood. Since repetitive DNAs are among the fastest evolving parts of the genome, we investigated, if repeatome innovations and losses are linked to chromosomal differentiation and speciation. We traced genome and chromosome-wide evolution across 13 beet species comprising all sections of the genera Beta and Patellifolia. For this, we combined short and long read sequencing, flow cytometry, and cytogenetics to build a comprehensive framework that spans the complete scale from DNA to chromosome to genome. Genome sizes and repeat profiles reflect the separation into three gene pools with contrasting evolutionary patterns. Among all repeats, satellite DNAs harbor most genomic variability, leading to fundamentally different centromere architectures, ranging from chromosomal uniformity in Beta and Patellifolia to the formation of patchwork chromosomes in Corollinae/Nanae. We show that repetitive DNAs are causal for the genome expansions and contractions across the beet genera, providing insights into the genomic underpinnings of beet speciation. Satellite DNAs in particular vary considerably between beet genomes, leading to the evolution of distinct chromosomal setups in the three gene pools, likely contributing to the barriers in beet breeding. Thus, with their isokaryotypic chromosome sets, beet genomes present an ideal system for studying the link between repeats, genomic variability, and chromosomal differentiation and provide a theoretical fundament for understanding barriers in any crop breeding effort.


FachzeitschriftThe Plant Journal
PublikationsstatusElektronische Veröffentlichung vor Drucklegung - 21 Dez. 2023

Externe IDs

Scopus 85180248809