It is the intention of this study to elucidate the nested formation of calcium carbonate polymorphs or polyamorphs in the different nanosized compartments. With these observations, it can be concluded how the bacteria can survive in a harsh environment with high calcium carbonate supersaturation. The mechanisms of calcium carbonate precipitation at the surface membrane and at the underlying cell wall membrane of the thermophilic soil bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 13240 have been revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In this Gram-positive bacterium, nanopores in the surface layer (S-layer) and in the supporting cell wall polymers are nucleation sites for metastable calcium carbonate polymorphs and polyamorphs. In order to observe the different metastable forms, various reaction times and a low reaction temperature (4 °C) have been chosen. Calcium carbonate polymorphs nucleate in the confinement of nanosized pores (3-5 nm) of the S-layer. The hydrous crystalline calcium carbonate (ikaite) is formed initially with  as the favored growth direction. It transforms into the anhydrous metastable vaterite by a solid-state transition. In a following reaction step, calcite is precipitated, caused by dissolution of vaterite in the aqueous solution. In the larger pores of the cell wall (20-50 nm), hydrated amorphous calcium carbonate is grown, which transforms into metastable monohydrocalcite, aragonite, or calcite. Due to the sequence of reaction steps via various metastable phases, the bacteria gain time for chipping the partially mineralized S-layer, and forming a fresh S-layer (characteristic growth time about 20 min). Thus, the bacteria can survive in solutions with high calcium carbonate supersaturation under the conditions of forced biomineralization.
|Seiten (von - bis)||526-539|
|Fachzeitschrift||ACS biomaterials science & engineering|
|Frühes Online-Datum||7 Jan. 2022|
|Publikationsstatus||Veröffentlicht - 14 Feb. 2022|
- S-layer, peptidoglycan layer, nanostructures, calcium carbonate, forced biomineralization, HR-TEM, GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA, CELL-WALL POLYMERS, S-LAYER, X-RAY, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, TRANSFORMATION, VATERITE, CRYSTALLIZATION, IKAITE, CACO3, Water, Calcium Carbonate/chemistry, Bacteria