Multidimensional assessment of anticipated and experienced interoceptive states

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



As the sense of the body's internal state, interoception represents the afferent component of the brain-body feedback loop essential for linking internal sensation with body regulation, thereby minimizing erroneous feedback and maintaining homeostasis. The anticipation of potential future interoceptive states enables organisms to take regulatory actions to meet demands before they arise, and alterations of anticipation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of medical and psychiatric conditions. However, laboratory approaches operationalizing the anticipation of interoceptive states are missing. Therefore, we developed two interoceptive awareness paradigms, the Accuracy of Interoceptive Anticipation paradigm, and the Interoceptive Discrepancy paradigm, which we tested in 52 healthy participants on two sensory modalities: nociception and respiroception. Ten participants took part in a retest. The Accuracy of Interoceptive Anticipation paradigm focused on assessing how individuals anticipate and experience interoceptive stimuli of varying strengths. The Interoceptive Discrepancy paradigm extended this measure by manipulating previously learned expectations to induce discrepancies between anticipated and experienced stimuli. We found that anticipation and experience ratings successfully related to stimulus strength in both paradigms and modalities and were stable between test-retest. Furthermore, the Interoceptive Discrepancy paradigm successfully induced the expected discrepancies between anticipation and experience conditions, and discrepancy values were correlated across sensory modalities. Thus, both paradigms are valid and reliable tools for assessing the anticipation of future interoceptive states, and the Interoceptive Discrepancy paradigm is additionally suited to evaluate discrepancy awareness.


Seiten (von - bis)114265
FachzeitschriftPhysiology & behavior
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 1 Okt. 2023

Externe IDs

Scopus 85161701595



  • Humans, Awareness/physiology, Brain, Interoception/physiology, Learning, Mental Disorders, Heart Rate/physiology