L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester does not release cysteine cathepsins to the cytosol but inactivates them in transiently permeabilized lysosomes

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung


  • Urska Repnik - (Autor:in)
  • Marita Borg Distefano - (Autor:in)
  • Martin Tobias Speth - (Autor:in)
  • Matthew Yoke Wui Ng - (Autor:in)
  • Cinzia Progida - (Autor:in)
  • Bernard Hoflack - , Professur für Proteomik (Autor:in)
  • Jean Gruenberg - (Autor:in)
  • Gareth Griffiths - (Autor:in)


L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe) induces apoptosis, which is thought to be mediated by release of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins from permeabilized lysosomes into the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated in HeLa cells that apoptotic as well as sub-apoptotic concentrations of LLOMe caused rapid and complete lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), as evidenced by loss of the proton gradient and release into the cytosol of internalized lysosomal markers below a relative molecular mass of 10,000. However, there was no evidence for the release of cysteine cathepsins B and L into the cytosol; rather they remained within lysosomes, where they were rapidly inactivated and degraded. LLOMe-induced adverse effects, including LMP, loss of cysteine cathepsin activity, caspase activation and cell death could be reduced by inhibition of cathepsin C, but not by inhibiting cathepsins B and L. When incubated with sub-apoptotic LLOMe concentrations, lysosomes transiently lost protons but annealed and re-acidified within hours. Full lysosomal function required new protein synthesis of cysteine cathepsins and other hydrolyses. Our data argue against the release of lysosomal enzymes into the cytosol and their proposed proteolytic signaling during LLOMe-induced apoptosis.


Seiten (von - bis)3124-3140
FachzeitschriftJournal of cell science
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2017

Externe IDs

PubMed 28754686


ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete


  • Apoptosis, Cysteine cathepsin, L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester, LLOMe, LMP, Lysosomal degradation, Lysosomal membrane permeabilization, Proton gradient