Immunity in salamander regeneration: Where are we standing and where are we headed?

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikel (Review)EingeladenBegutachtung



Salamanders exhibit the most extensive regenerative repertoire among vertebrates, being able to accomplish scar-free healing and faithful regeneration of significant parts of the eye, heart, brain, spinal cord, jaws and gills, as well as entire appendages throughout life. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying salamander regeneration are currently under extensive examination, with the hope of identifying the key drivers in each context, understanding interspecies differences in regenerative capacity, and harnessing this knowledge in therapeutic settings. The immune system has recently emerged as a potentially critical player in regenerative responses. Components of both innate and adaptive immunity have been found at critical stages of regeneration in a range of salamander tissues. Moreover, functional studies have identified a requirement for macrophages during heart and limb regeneration. However, our knowledge of salamander immunity remains scarce, and a thorough definition of the precise roles played by its members is lacking. Here, we examine the evidence supporting roles for immunity in various salamander regeneration models. We pinpoint observations that need revisiting through modern genetic approaches, uncover knowledge gaps, and highlight insights from various model organisms that could guide future explorations toward an understanding of the functions of immunity in regeneration.


Seiten (von - bis)753-767
FachzeitschriftDevelopmental Dynamics
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Juni 2021

Externe IDs

PubMedCentral PMC8363947
Scopus 85091254655



  • Animals, Immune System/physiology, Lymphocytes/physiology, Macrophages/physiology, Regeneration/physiology, Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Cord/physiology, Urodela/physiology