Gyroid-structured 3D ZnO networks made by atomic layer deposition

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung


  • Ellie Kim - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Yana Vaynzof - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Alessandro Sepe - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Stefan Guldin - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Maik Scherer - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Pedro Cunha - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)
  • Stephan V. Roth - , Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) (Autor:in)
  • Ullrich Steiner - , University of Cambridge (Autor:in)


3D continuous ZnO morphologies with characteristic feature sizes on the 10 nm length scale are attractive for electronic device manufacture. However, their synthesis remains a challenge because of the low crystallization temperature of ZnO. Here, we report a method for the robust and reliable synthesis of fully crystalline 3D mesoporous ZnO networks by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO into a self-assembled block copolymer template. By carefully optimizing the processing conditions we are able to synthesize several-micrometer-thick layers of mesoporous ZnO networks with a strut width of 30 nm. Two 3D mesoporous morphologies are manufactured: a periodic gyroid structure and a random worm-like morphology. Exploiting the ALD property to conformally coat complex surfaces of high aspect ratio, the channel network of a 3D continuous channel network of a self-assembled block copolymer is replicated into ZnO. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the chemical composition of the mesoporous structures is uniform and consists of wurtzite-ZnO throughout the film. Scanning electron microscopy reveals an average pore dimension of 30 nm. The potential of this material for a hybrid photovoltaic application is demonstrated by the manufacture of a poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO solar cell. 3D continuous ZnO morphologies with characteristic feature sizes on the 10 nm length scale are replicated into crystalline ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Gyroid-structured and random worm-like polymer morphologies are voided and filled by ALD to generate continuous networks of polycrystalline ZnO. A photovoltaic device based on this material shows promising performance.


Seiten (von - bis)863-872
FachzeitschriftAdvanced functional materials
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 12 Feb. 2014
Extern publiziertJa


Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung


  • atomic layer deposition, nanostructures, polymer self assembly, ZnO