Detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with galectin-9 serum levels

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) responds poorly to checkpoint blockade, such as anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1. Galectin-9, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, promotes immune suppression through T-cell inhibition, and programming of tolerogenic macrophages. Of all cancers tested, PDAC showed the highest expression of LGALS9 (galectin-9) mRNA. We analyzed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens from 83 patients with PDAC stained for galectin-9. Using flow cytometry, we determined galectin-9 expression on immune cells from tumor and matched blood samples from 12 patients with resectable PDAC. Furthermore, we analyzed galectin-9 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serum samples from 70 patients with PDAC, from 36 individuals with benign pancreatic disease, and from 28 healthy controls. Galectin-9 was highly expressed in human PDAC compared with normal pancreas and present on both tumor and immune cells. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially CD3+ T cells, showed upregulation of galectin-9 compared with immune cells from matched blood. Blood γδ T cells from PDAC patients had higher galectin-9 expression than γδ T cells from healthy individuals. Galectin-9 polarized macrophages toward a protumoral M2 phenotype leading to suppressed T-cell cytokine secretion. Furthermore, serum concentration of galectin-9 was able to discriminate PDAC from benign pancreatic disease and healthy individuals, and was prognostic for stage IV patients. Galectin-9 is a new biomarker for the detection of PDAC.


Seiten (von - bis)3102-3113
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Apr. 2020

Externe IDs

PubMedCentral PMC7142017
Scopus 85079407174
ORCID /0000-0002-5329-3164/work/147141095


Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung


  • Adult, Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor/blood, Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/blood, Cohort Studies, Female, Galectins/blood, Humans, Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Pancreas/pathology, Pancreatic Neoplasms/blood, Prognosis, Survival Analysis, Up-Regulation