Cigarette smoke extract counteracts atheroprotective effects of high laminar flow on endothelial function

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



Tobacco smoking and hemodynamic forces are key stimuli in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. High laminar flow has an atheroprotective effect on the endothelium and leads to a reduced response of endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors compared to regions with disturbed or low laminar flow. We hypothesize that the atheroprotective effect of high laminar flow could delay the development of endothelial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoking. Primary human endothelial cells were stimulated with increasing dosages of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSEaq). CSEaq reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The main mediator of cellular adaption to oxidative stress, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its target genes heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1) or NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) were strongly increased by CSEaq in a dose-dependent manner. High laminar flow induced elongation of endothelial cells in the direction of flow, activated the AKT/eNOS pathway, increased eNOS expression, phosphorylation and NO release. These increases were inhibited by CSEaq. Pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1), selectin E (SELE) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) were increased by CSEaq. Low laminar flow induced VCAM1 and SELE compared to high laminar flow. High laminar flow improved endothelial wound healing. This protective effect was inhibited by CSEaq in a dose-dependent manner through the AKT/eNOS pathway. Low as well as high laminar flow decreased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Whereas, monocyte adhesion was increased by CSEaq under low laminar flow, this was not evident under high laminar flow. This study shows the activation of major atherosclerotic key parameters by CSEaq. Within this process, high laminar flow is likely to reduce the harmful effects of CSEaq to a certain degree. The identified molecular mechanisms might be useful for development of alternative therapy concepts.


Seiten (von - bis)776-786
FachzeitschriftRedox Biology
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Aug. 2017

Externe IDs

PubMed 28432984
PubMedCentral PMC5397582
Scopus 85017645830



  • Atherosclerosis/metabolism, Cell Survival/drug effects, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Endothelium, Vascular/cytology, Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects, Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects, Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Humans, NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/metabolism, NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism, Oxidative Stress, Regional Blood Flow, Smoke/adverse effects, Tobacco/adverse effects