Can you feel the force just right? Tactile force feedback for training of minimally invasive surgery-evaluation of vibration feedback for adequate force application

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



BACKGROUND: Tissue handling is a crucial skill for surgeons and is challenging to learn. The aim of this study was to develop laparoscopic instruments with different integrated tactile vibration feedback by varying different tactile modalities and assess its effect on tissue handling skills.

METHODS: Standard laparoscopic instruments were equipped with a vibration effector, which was controlled by a microcomputer attached to a force sensor platform. One of three different vibration feedbacks (F1: double vibration > 2 N; F2: increasing vibration relative to force; F3: one vibration > 1.5 N and double vibration > 2 N) was applied to the instruments. In this multicenter crossover trial, surgical novices and expert surgeons performed two laparoscopic tasks (Peg transfer, laparoscopic suture, and knot) each with all the three vibration feedback modalities and once without any feedback, in a randomized order. The primary endpoint was force exertion.

RESULTS: A total of 57 subjects (15 surgeons, 42 surgical novices) were included in the trial. In the Peg transfer task, there were no differences between the tactile feedback modalities in terms of force application. However, in subgroup analysis, the use of F2 resulted in a significantly lower mean-force application (p-value = 0.02) among the student group. In the laparoscopic suture and knot task, all participants exerted significantly lower mean and peak forces using F2 (p-value < 0.01). These findings remained significant after subgroup analysis for both, the student and surgeon groups individually. The condition without tactile feedback led to the highest mean and peak force exertion compared to the three other feedback modalities.

CONCLUSION: Continuous tactile vibration feedback decreases the mean and peak force applied during laparoscopic training tasks. This effect is more pronounced in demanding tasks such as laparoscopic suturing and knot tying and might be more beneficial for students. Laparoscopic tasks without feedback lead to increased force application.


Seiten (von - bis)3917-3928
FachzeitschriftSurgical endoscopy
Frühes Online-Datum4 Juni 2024
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Juli 2024

Externe IDs

ORCID /0009-0001-1210-4080/work/161407675
ORCID /0000-0001-7033-7870/work/161408035
ORCID /0009-0001-4069-3062/work/161409589
ORCID /0000-0003-2862-9196/work/161409900
Scopus 85195221641
ORCID /0000-0002-4590-1908/work/163294150



  • Force feedback, Minimally invasive surgery, Tactile feedback, Training, Vibration, Clinical Competence, Humans, Male, Touch, Cross-Over Studies, Laparoscopy/education, Adult, Female, Feedback, Sensory, Suture Techniques/education