Associations of early childhood medication exposure and molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): A routine data analysis

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



OBJECTIVES: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has become a major oral health problem of widely unknown origin. Besides genetic predisposition, exposure to certain drugs in early childhood are suspected to be associated with MIH. Aim of this routine data analysis was to examine associations of MIH and exposure to medication as well as perinatal factors.

METHODS: Individuals with MIH were identified in claims data using a validated predefined specific treatment pattern. The database was a comprehensive routine data set of a major national health insurance company (BARMER, Germany). Based on this treatment pattern a MIH group and an unaffected control group were formed for analysis. Various medical data including medical diagnoses and prescriptions were available. Associations were examined comparing results for a set of variables in both groups. Differences between the groups were tested for significance using T-tests (P<0.01).

RESULTS: Between 2010 to 2019, a total of 298,502 children between 6 and 9 years of age were included in this analysis. 22,947 were assigned to the MIH group. For individuals in this group, significantly larger prescription quantities in the main ATC (Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical) groups J (antiinfectives for systemic use), R (respiratory system) and S (sensory organs) were found in the first 4 years of life compared to MIH unaffected individuals. With antibiotics, there were both significantly larger prescription quantities and significantly higher numbers of respective prescriptions in the first 4 years of life. The differences amounted up to about 10.62% in frequently used antibiotics to be found in ATC J01D (other beta-lactam antibacterials) for the number of prescriptions in the 4th year of life. No association was found for premature birth, mode of delivery or the use of antipyretic or anti-inflammatory medication.

CONCLUSIONS: While perinatal factors do not seem to be associated with MIH development, early life exposure to antibiotics might play a role.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Although causal relations can still not be proven, a responsible use of the unquestionably beneficial antibiotics is encouraged from a clinical point of view.


Seiten (von - bis)104315
FachzeitschriftJournal of dentistry
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Nov. 2022

Externe IDs

Scopus 85139285972
ORCID /0000-0001-5859-2318/work/142254195



  • Child, Pregnancy, Female, Child, Preschool, Humans, Incisor, Data Analysis, Antipyretics, Molar, Prevalence, Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/chemically induced, Anti-Bacterial Agents, beta-Lactams