A Precursor-Derived Ultramicroporous Carbon for Printing Iontronic Logic Gates and Super-Varactors

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung


A liquid precursor for 3D printing ultramicroporous carbons (pore width <0.7 nm) to create a novel in-plane capacitive-analog of semiconductor-based diodes (CAPodes) is presented. This proof-of-concept integrates functional EDLCs into microstructured iontronic devices. The working principle is based on selective ion-sieving, controlling the size of the electrolyte ions, and the nanoporous sieving carbon's pore size. By blocking bulky electrolyte ions from entering the sub-nanometer pores, a unidirectional charging characteristic with controllable ion flux is achieved, leading to diodic U-I characteristics with a high rectification ratio. The liquid precursor approach enables successful printing of miniaturized in-plane CAPodes. A combination of inkjet and extrusion printing techniques with suitable inks is explored to fabricate electrode materials with engineered porosity. Deliberate fine-tuning of the ultramicroporous carbon's porosity and surface area is achieved using a customized carbon precursor and CO2 etching techniques. Electrochemical evaluation of the printed CAPodes demonstrates successful miniaturization compared with macroscopic film assembly. 3D manufacturing and miniaturization allow for the integration of CAPodes into logic gate circuits (OR, AND). For the first time, these switchable devices are used as variable capacitors in a high-pass filter application, adjusting the cut-off frequency of applied alternating voltage analogous to an I-MOS varactor.


FachzeitschriftAdvanced materials
PublikationsstatusElektronische Veröffentlichung vor Drucklegung - 3 Mai 2024



  • 3D printing, CAPode, ionic diode, iontronics, logic gates, nanoporous carbon, varactor