A global review of ecological fiscal transfers

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikel (Review)BeigetragenBegutachtung


  • Jonah Busch - , Conservation International (Autor:in)
  • Irene Ring - , Professur für Ökosystemare Dienstleistungen (Ecosystem Services) (Autor:in)
  • Monique Akullo - , National Environment Management Authority (Autor:in)
  • Oyut Amarjargal - , Earth Innovation Institute (Autor:in)
  • Maud Borie - , King's College London (Autor:in)
  • Rodrigo S. Cassola - , United Nations (Autor:in)
  • Annabelle Cruz-Trinidad - , United Nations (Autor:in)
  • Nils Droste - , Lund University (Autor:in)
  • Joko Tri Haryanto - , Ministry of Finance (Autor:in)
  • Ulan Kasymov - , Professur für Ökosystemare Dienstleistungen (Ecosystem Services) (Autor:in)
  • Nataliia Viktorivna Kotenko - , Sumy State University (Autor:in)
  • Ariunaa Lhkagvadorj - , National Academy of Governance (Autor:in)
  • Felipe Luiz Lima De Paulo - , Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Autor:in)
  • Peter H. May - , Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Autor:in)
  • Anit Mukherjee - , Center for Global Development (Autor:in)
  • Sonny Mumbunan - , University of Indonesia, World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia (Autor:in)
  • Rui Santos - , NOVA University Lisbon (Autor:in)
  • Luca Tacconi - , Australian National University (Autor:in)
  • Gracie Verde Selva - , The Institute for Food Systems and Sustainability Research (Autor:in)
  • Madhu Verma - , World Resources Institute (WRI) India (Autor:in)
  • Xiaoxi Wang - , Zhejiang University, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Autor:in)
  • Lu Yu - , Zhejiang University, Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik gGmbH (DIE) (Autor:in)
  • Kecen Zhou - , Technische Universität Dresden (Autor:in)


Ecological fiscal transfers (EFT) transfer public revenue between governments within a country based on ecological indicators. EFT can compensate subnational governments for the costs of conserving ecosystems and in principle can incentivize greater ecological conservation. We review established EFT in Brazil, Portugal, France, China and India, and emerging or proposed EFT in ten more countries. We analyse common themes related to EFT emergence, design and effects. EFT have grown rapidly from US$0.35 billion yr−1 in 2007 to US$23 billion yr−1 in 2020. We discuss the scope of opportunity to expand EFT to other ountries
by ‘greening’ intergovernmental fiscal transfers.


Seiten (von - bis)756-765
FachzeitschriftNature Sustainability
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Sept. 2021

Externe IDs

ORCID /0000-0001-5620-1379/work/142236411
ORCID /0000-0002-2688-8947/work/142244304