A comparative analysis of 3D printed scaffolds consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid and different bioactive mineral fillers: aspects of degradation and cytocompatibility

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung



Their excellent mechanical properties, degradability and suitability for processing by 3D printing technologies make the thermoplastic polylactic acid and its derivatives favourable candidates for biomaterial-based bone regeneration therapies. In this study, we investigated whether bioactive mineral fillers, which are known to promote bone healing based on their dissolution products, can be integrated into a poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLLA-PGA) matrix and how key characteristics of degradation and cytocompatibility are influenced. The polymer powder was mixed with particles of CaCO3, SrCO3, strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (SrHAp) or tricalcium phosphates (α-TCP, β-TCP) in a mass ratio of 90 : 10; the resulting composite materials have been successfully processed into scaffolds by the additive manufacturing method Arburg Plastic Freeforming (APF). Degradation of the composite scaffolds was investigated in terms of dimensional change, bioactivity, ion (calcium, phosphate, strontium) release/uptake and pH development during long-term (70 days) incubation. The mineral fillers influenced the degradation behavior of the scaffolds to varying degrees, with the calcium phosphate phases showing a clear buffer effect and an acceptable dimensional increase. The amount of 10 wt% SrCO3 or SrHAp particles did not appear to be appropriate to release a sufficient amount of strontium ions to exert a biological effect in vitro. Cell culture experiments with the human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC) indicated the high cytocompatibility of the composites: For all material groups cell spreading and complete colonization of the scaffolds over the culture period of 14 days as well as an increase of the specific alkaline phosphatase activity, typical for osteogenic differentiation, were observed.


Seiten (von - bis)5590-5604
FachzeitschriftBiomaterials science
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 8 Aug. 2023

Externe IDs

Scopus 85165307219
ORCID /0000-0001-9075-5121/work/146642750



  • Humans, Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry, Osteogenesis, Glycols, Calcium Phosphates/chemistry, Minerals, Cell Differentiation, Strontium/chemistry, Printing, Three-Dimensional