In recent studies, it has been shown that a cooperative interaction in a co-infection spread can lead to a discontinuous transition at a decreased threshold. Here, we investigate the effects of immunization with a rate proportional to the extent of the infection on phase transitions of a cooperative co-infection. We use the mean-field approximation to illustrate how measures that remove a portion of the susceptible compartment, like vaccination, with high enough rates can change discontinuous transitions in two coupled susceptible-infectious-recovered dynamics into continuous ones while increasing the threshold of transitions. First, we introduce vaccination with a fixed rate into a symmetric spread of two diseases and investigate the numerical results. Second, we set the rate of measures proportional to the size of the infectious compartment and scrutinize the dynamics. We solve the equations numerically and analytically and probe the transitions for a wide range of parameters. We also determine transition points from the analytical solutions. Third, we adopt a heterogeneous mean-field approach to include heterogeneity and asymmetry in the dynamics and see if the results corresponding to homogeneous symmetric case stand.
|Journal||Physical Review E|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2022|