Digital teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills of the clinical head and neck examination during COVID-19 pandemic

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



PURPOSE: During COVID-19, a fully digital course was established for teaching and assessing the psychomotor skills of clinical head and neck examination. Influence of different digital teaching formats was investigated.

METHODS: The students (n = 286) received disposable instruments, a manual, and instructional videos for the examination. 221 students additionally received 45 min of interactive teleteaching. After 5 days of practice, all students were required to submit a video of their examination and report their spent practice time. The assessment was carried out using a checklist which was already established in presence teaching.

RESULTS: The average score achieved by digital teaching was 86%. Previously published data show that presence teaching achieved 94%. With a teleteaching unit the total score was significantly better than without (87% vs 83%). Teleteaching leads to a significant positive correlation between practice time and total score. Without teleteaching there is a negative correlation. After the same practice time, presence teaching leads to better total scores than digital teaching.

CONCLUSION: Digital teaching and assessing of a complex psychomotor skill is possible. Interactive teaching methods increase learning success. Nevertheless, presence teaching seems to be better at teaching these skills. The results can provide a basis for developing hybrid teaching models.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4835-4844
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2023

External IDs

PubMedCentral PMC10180612
Scopus 85159258393
WOS 000986372300001
ORCID /0000-0003-3894-1175/work/148603765
ORCID /0000-0002-1519-3111/work/149081512


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • COVID-19, Covid-19, Digital assessment, Digital teaching, Psychomotor skills, Learning, Pandemics, Humans, Physical Examination, Teaching