Advanced glass fiber polymer composite laminate operating as a thermoelectric generator: A structural device for micropower generation and potential large-scale thermal energy harvesting

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • George Karalis - , University of Ioannina (First author)
  • Lazaros Tzounis - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Kyriaki Tsirka - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Christos K. Mytafides - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Angelos Voudouris Itskaras - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Marco Liebscher - , Chair of Construction Materials (Author)
  • Eleftherios Lambrou - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Leonidas N. Gergidis - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Nektaria Marianthi Barkoula - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Alkiviadis S. Paipetis - , University of Ioannina (Author)


This study demonstrates for the first time a structural glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminate with efficient thermal energy harvesting properties as a thermoelectric generator (TEG). This TEG laminate was fabricated by stacking unidirectional glass fiber (GF) laminae coated with p- and n-type single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inks via a blade coating technique. According to their thermoelectric (TE) response, the p- and n-type GF-SWCNT fabrics exhibited Seebeck coefficients of +23 and -29 μV/K with 60 and 118 μW/m·K2 power factor values, respectively. The in-series p-n interconnection of the TE-enabled GF-SWCNT fabrics and their subsequent impregnation with epoxy resin effectively generated an electrical power output of 2.2 μW directly from a 16-ply GFRP TEG laminate exposed to a temperature difference (ΔT) of 100 K. Both experimental and modeling work validated the TE performance. The structural integrity of the multifunctional GFRP was tested by three-point bending coupled with online monitoring of the steady-state TE current (Isc) at a ΔT of 80 K. Isc was found to closely follow all transitions and discontinuities related to structural damage in the stress/strain curve, thus showing its potential to serve the functions of power generation and damage monitoring.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24138-24153
Number of pages16
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2021

External IDs

PubMed 33988382


Research priority areas of TU Dresden

Subject groups, research areas, subject areas according to Destatis

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • advanced glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites, in-plane thermal gradient, large-scale thermal energy harvesting, multifunctional composites, organic thermoelectrics, Seebeck effect, structural TEG laminate, thermoelectric modeling